grubs are the larvae of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). They belong
systematically to the suborder Lamellicornia. White grubs of economic importance to
agriculture, amenity grassland, sport fields en privately owned gardens belong to this
White grubs play an important role in damaging grassland. Grubs of the Garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola) and Summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitialis) have frequently been recorded damaging turf, especially in golf courses, various types of sportsfields and amenity grasland. Grubs of Cock chafers (Melolontha melolontha) have frequently been recorded during the last decennium and caused severe damage from 1993 onwards on several types of grassland, in tree nurseries and private gardens. Damage, caused by grubs of dungbeetles (Aphodius contaminatus and A. fossor), occurred in pastures in the regions of Twente, de Achterhoek, Utrechtse Heuvelrug and some parts of Brabant. Euchlora dubia (=Anomala aenia), Brown chafer (Serica brunnea) and the Welsh chafer (Hoplia philantus) occur less frequently but the grubs cause the same type of damage. Other species e.g. Rhizotrogus majalis, Phyllognatus excavatus and Haplidia etrusca seldom occur but are recorded from turfgrasses in Southern Europe. The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) has not been recorded yet.
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